Erste Analyse: Konkordanzen und Alkoholismus

Im Folgenden findet ihr einen Abschnitt der aktuellen Fassung meines Studienprojekts (der Pilotstudie zu meiner Masterarbeit). Da sowohl Projekt als auch Arbeit auf Englisch sein werden, kommt hier auch ein englischsprachiger Abschnitt.

Auf Basis meines Pilotkorpus (1981-1986) habe ich mir mittels AntConc die Konkordanzen der Begriffe homosexuality, homosexual, homosexuals und gay anzeigen lassen und für jedes einzelne Jahr separat nach den nachfolgenden und zuvorkommenden Wörtern tabellarisch anzeigen lassen (eine sog. KWIC-View)

kwic view 1

Was hier z.B. als Muster ins Auge springt, sind Konstruktionen wie “homosexual activity” oder “homosexual acts (and sodomy) between consenting adults”. Nach eben diesen Mustern habe ich gesucht und diese zwei Tabellen angelegt. Die obere zeigt die wichtigen Konkordanzen rechts des Suchbegriffs, die untere links des Suchbegriffs.

Year 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986
homosexuality and alcoholism/ and masturbation and alcoholism/ and masturbation/ ? ? promiscuity
homosexual activists/ activity/ act/ affair/ assaults/ club/ community/ group/ lover/ males/ men/ rape(s)/ relationships/ rights/ tendencies (political) activities/ affair(s)/ clique/ (political) club/ community/ experience/ group(s)/ liasons/ life(-)style/ marriage/ men/ minister/ movement/ prostitution/ rape/ rights (groups)/ student/ teacher/ tendencies/ activists/ activity/ acts/ affair/ and bisexual man/ and heterosexual/ church/ communities/ community/ couple/ denomination/ father/ group(s)/ life style/ lover(s)/ male(s)/ marriage/ men/ or bisexual men/ relations/ rights/ supervisor/ tendencies/ volunteers/ act/ activists/ activity/ affair/ community/ conduct/ couples/ “cruising”/ father/ groups/ lover/ man/ marriage/ member/ men/ or bisexual/ population/ relationship/   rights/ sex/ solicitation/ supervisor activist/ activities/ activity/ and bisexual men/ bathhouses/ community/ life style/ male(s)/ man/ marriage/men/ or bisexual/ population/ relationships/ rights (groups) (organization)/ student(s) activists/ activity/ acts/ and bisexual/ and heterosexual/ behaviour/ community/ contact/ disease/ encounter/ experiences/ group/ life style/ males/ men/ or bisexual males/ parties/ population/ prostitute/ relations between consenting adults/ rights (groups)/ sodomy
homosexuals ? are not born/ in Nazi Germany/ in politics and bisexuals, drug users, haemophiliacs/ and communists/ and feminists/ and intravenous drug users/ drug addicts, Haitians/ protect () from discrimination/ Haitians/ in employment/ intravenous drug abusers/

 

(and) drug addicts/ (and) (intravenous) drug (ab)users and (intravenous) drug (abusers) (addicts) (users)
gay Activists Alliance/ activitsts/ bars/ community/ couple/ men/ movement/ organization(s)/ people/ rights/ women activists/ and lesbian/ bar(s)/ community/ groups/ leader(s)/ people/ Pride Day/ rights activist(s)/ Alliance/ and lesbian (health) (pride) (rights)/ bar(s)/ civil rights/ club(s)/ community/ customers/ Democratic Club/ disease/ Freedom Day/ groups/ leaders/ Men (with AIDS)/ organisation(s) /-oriented/ people/ person(s)/ plague/ political/ rights/ support/ National () Task Force/ Activist Alliance/ activist (groups)/ Alliance/ and lesbian/ bar(s)/ bathhouses/ characters/ community/ group(s)/ leaders/ liberation/ life/ men/ organizations/ people/ rights/ student organizations activist/ Activists Alliance/ actor(s)/ and lesbian/ bar/ bathhouses/ community/ disease/ leaders/ man/ men/ organizations/ -oriented/ people/ person/ plague/ political/ population/ rights/ sexual activity/ students/ National ()Task Force/ teen-agers activists/ and lesbian (life style(s) (Task Force)/ bar(s)/ community/ dance/ liberation (movement)/ man/ men/ people/ Pride/ rights advocates/ rights groups/ rights movement/ rights organization/ student(s)/ vote

(nach links geordnet)

Year 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986
homosexuality abortion/ masturbation/ admitted problems with () and alcoholism alcoholism and/ [acknowledge]/ problems of/ promote/ attitudes toward/ alcoholism and/ acknowledging his/ allegations of/ fear of/ history of/ issue of/ “promote, defend or protect/ [advocate]/ allegations of/ endorsement of/ practice of/ about/ attitudes toward/ abortion and/ pornography and/
homosexual [have] a () affair, decriminalizing () acts, legalizing most, an acknowledged () minister/ lesbian and () marriage/ anti-/ million-dollar () prostitution/ allegations of/ promiscuous/ recognition of the () groups/ [have] a () affair/ politically active / sexually active/ heterosexual and/ anti- / victims have been/ engaged in () acts OR activity/ male/ Activists in the () community/ young sexually active/ among homosexuals/ an avowed/ [frequent] homosexual/ public sexually active/ among/ victims are/ heterosexual and/ privater, consensual/ fundamental right to engage in () (sodomy) (behaviour)/ condemnation of/ morality of/ question of/
homosexuals frequented by/ supported by/ Capitol Hill bar for/ movies for/ place for (some)/ political power of homosexuals/ young [discriminate] against/ women and/ civil rights for/ exclusion of/ persecution of/ [discriminate] against/ victims are/ may have been/ male/ harrasement of/ hundreds of/ protect/ strike(s) / Catholic beliefs against/ (ban) (bar) (prohibit) discrimination against/ militant/ self-avowed, practicing/ protection to [discriminate] against/ male/ some/ [discriminate] against/ male/ ministry to/
gay Activists Alliance/ activitsts/ bars/ community/ couple/ men/ movement/ organization(s)/ people/ rights/ women activists/ and lesbian/ bar(s)/ community/ groups/ leader(s)/ people/ Pride Day/ rights activist(s)/ Alliance/ and lesbian (health) (pride) (rights)/ bar(s)/ civil rights/ club(s)/ community/ customers/ Democratic Club/ disease/ Freedom Day/ groups/ leaders/ Men (with AIDS)/ organisation(s) /-oriented/ people/ person(s)/ plague/ political/ rights/ support/ National () Task Force/ Activist Alliance/ activist (groups)/ Alliance/ and lesbian/ bar(s)/ bathhouses/ characters/ community/ group(s)/ leaders/ liberation/ life/ men/ organizations/ people/ rights/ student organizations activist/ Activists Alliance/ actor(s)/ and lesbian/ bar/ bathhouses/ community/ disease/ leaders/ man/ men/ organizations/ -oriented/ people/ person/ plague/ political/ population/ rights/ sexual activity/ students/ National ()Task Force/ teen-agers activists/ and lesbian (life style(s) (Task Force)/ bar(s)/ community/ dance/ liberation (movement)/ man/ men/ people/ Pride/ rights advocates/ rights groups/ rights movement/ rights organization/ student(s)/ vote

Für die Pilotstudie habe ich mir ein Beispiel von vielen möglichen rausgesucht: Am besten kopiere ich einfach mal den entsprechenden Abschnitt aus dem Projekt hinein.

These tables point to numerous possibilities of further quantitative and qualitative analyses for my final thesis. For instance, it appears that homosexuality often co-occurs with terms that denote controversial aspects of sexuality (abortion, masturbation, pornography), and also correlates with mentions of alcoholism.

For the entire 1981-1986 corpus, alcoholism co-occurred 23 times with homosexuality, 12 times on the left and 11 times on the right (with a 5L 5R window span), giving a Stat value of ~9.71. Most of these instances give a negative picture of homosexuality, talking about admitted/ admitting to problems with homosexuality and alcoholism, or (the) twin compulsion(s) of alcoholism and homosexuality.

Most of these are connected to a case where R. E. Bauman, former member of the House of Representatives for the Republican Party in Maryland lost his seat “after he admitted problems with homosexuality and alcoholism”[1] facing charges of soliciting sex from an teen-age male sex-worker.[2] Both homosexuality and alcoholism are consistently portrayed as problematic by both newspaper article authors and Bauman.[3] When Bauman was re-running for office, he asserted that his “’twin compulsions towards alcoholism and homosexuality’ no longer exist”, indicating that homosexuality is a curable disease or disorder.[4] After Bauman’s withdrawal from the campaign to win the Republican nomination for the Congressional District election and announcing the end of his political career, his opponent C. A. P. Hopkins stated that he had kept his vow to “not (…) bring up Bauman’s ‘personal problems’”, clearly alluding to both homosexuality and alcoholism. Bauman himself, and his “problems of homosexuality and alcoholism” were cited to be “the biggest issue” in the electoral campaign and enabling his opponent Hopkins to run a “’smear campaign’”[5] or make Bauman the target of “ridicule”[6]. The story of Bauman (which certainly will be expanded in my thesis), is a remarkable example for the usefulness of a connection of qualitative and quantitative methodology and an interdisciplinary approach using critical/ historical discourse analysis with results from corpus linguistics.

[1] Baker, Donald P. Washington Post 8 Jan. 1981: C1. Print.

[2] Saperstein, Saundra. “Bauman Bows Out of Race, Citing ‘Scurrilous Attacks’.” Washington Post 30 Jul. 1982: A1. Print.

[3] McQueen, Michael. Washington Post 6 Mar. 1981: B1. Print. See also Saperstein, Saundra. Washington Post 24 Nov. 1981: B1. Print.

[4] Feinstein, John. Washington Post 17 Feb. 1982: A1. Print.

[5] Saperstein, Saundra. “Bauman Bows Out of Race, Citing ‘Scurrilous Attacks’.” Washington Post 30 Jul. 1982: A1. Print.

[6] Feinstein, John. “Bauman: ‘I’ll Carry This to My Grave’.” Washington Post 15 Aug. 1982: A1. Print.

Genau darauf wollte ich mit meiner Thesis hinaus. Mittels qualitativer und quantiatver Methoden (und ihrer Mischung) aus der (Korpus)-Linguistik in die historisch-kritische Diskursanalyse hinein. Interessanterweise hat Mr Bauman 1986 ein Buch geschrieben: The gentleman from Maryland : the conscience of a gay conservative.

 

Aktuelle Version der vorläufigen Gliederung

Im Rahmen der Erstellung meines Studienprojektes (der Pilotstudie, die ich hoffe, bis Anfang Juni fertig zu haben), sollte ich mir Gedanken um die Gliederung meiner M.A. Thesis machen.

Ich bin hier angekommen:

  1. Introduction
  2. Key Concepts
    1. Corpus Linguistics
    2. Discourse
      1. Definition
      2. Critical Discourse Analysis
      3. Historical Discourse Analysis
    3. Media as a Discursive Space
    4. Language and Power
  3. Historical Background
    1. Queer Americans until the 1960s
    2. Stonewall and the Gay Liberation Movement
    3. Reagan, Conservatism, and the Discovery of HIV/AIDS
  4. Data and Methodology
    1. Data Collection and Processing
    2. Evaluation of the Specialised Corpus
    3. Corpus Assisted Discourse Studies (CADS)
  5. Analysis
  6. Conclusion
  7. Works cited
    1. Primary Sources
    2. Secondary Literature

Über Kommentare wäre ich sehr dankbar.